Classification of Immunological diseases // Drug Repurposing

Classification of Immunological diseases

Penicillins can also cause Autoimmune hemolytic AnBy
Posted in Wikinut Health General Health Diseases & Infections

Hemolysis may develop in the course of infections such as malaria, viral hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis and mycoplasma infection

Introduction

Hemolysis may develop in the course of infections such as malaria, viral hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis and mycoplasma infection. Collagen disorders, leukemias, lymphomas and other malignancies may be associated with immune hemolysis. Several drugs like penicillin and methyldopa are associated with the production of antibodies and hemolytic anemias. Drugs act in several ways:

1. Drugs like penicillin may act as haptens and make the erythrocyte antigenic.
2. Drugs like stibophen, quinine, quinidine, INH, PAS, and sulphonamides, lead to the development of immune complexes which get attached to the erythrocytes and lead to complement mediated hemolysis (innocent bystander type).
3. Drugs like methyldopa lead to production of antibodies directed against specific antigen sites in the erythrocyte and lead to hemolysis.

Rarely, hemolysis may be due to physical factors. Prosthetic cardiac valves lead to mechanical injury and severe physical exertion lead to hemolysis by the same mechanism. Hemolysis accompanies extensive burns.

A Jaundiced InfantHemolytic disorders could be classified into inherited and acquired hemolytic disorders.

Inherited Hemolytic Disorders

Red cell membrane defects: Such as hereditary spherocytosis, hereditary elliptocytosis, hereditary acanthocytosis, hereditary stomatocytosis etc.

Red cell enzyme deficiencies: Such as deficiencies of pyruvate kinase, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase.

Defects in globin structure: Such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia and other hemoglobinopathies involving unstable hemoglobins.

Acquired hemolytic disorders

Immunologically mediated hemolytic anemia: Such as incompatible blood transfusion, hemolytic disease of the newborn, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (warm antibody and cold antibody types).

Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia: Such as disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and mechanical causes like implantation of cardiac prosthesis and march hemoglobinuria.

Caused by infections: Such as malaria, clostridium welchi infections and bartonellosis.

Caused by drugs, chemicals and toxins: Such as nitrofurantoin, sulphonamides, viper venom and formic acid poisoning.

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