Drug resistant microorganisms // Drug Repurposing

Drug resistant microorganisms

CRE - 600 out of 9, 000 patients die a year (Image from cdc.gov)CRE - 600 out of 9, 000 patients die a year (Image from cdc.gov)

A lack of new antibiotics, coupled with the over-prescription of existing ones, is making many formerly routine diseases untreatable, according to a new report published by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

At least two million people in the US are infected each year - and 23, 000 of those die - from bacteria that does not respond to treatment by usual or any antibiotics, claims the Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States 2013 report.

“We are approaching a cliff. If we don’t take steps to slow or stop drug resistance, we will fall back to a time when simple infections killed people, ” said Michael Bell, Deputy Director of CDC’s Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, and one of the report’s authors.

Among the diseases the report labeled an ‘Urgent threat’ are C.difficile, a form of severe diarrhea that kills 14, 000 people per year, and gonorrhea, as nearly a third of the 800, 000 estimated annual infections are with strains that do not respond to at least some antibiotics.

The most terrifying perhaps is Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a relatively new and rare but deadly infection that cannot be tackled by “drugs of last resort” (medicines that are purposely reserved for treatment courses when all else has failed).

Out of an estimated 9, 000 cases of CRE each year, 600 people die.

The report says that by far the most important reason for the proliferation of drug-resistant bacteria is the incorrect prescription of antibiotics by doctors and improper use by patients.

Half of all antibiotic prescriptions in the US are unnecessary – a precaution, or a result of misdiagnosis or ignorance about the ability of the drug to treat a certain disease. A course of a drug weeds out certain types of bacteria, but leaves a minority untouched. The surviving bacteria then multiply, creating a new strain of the disease that is no longer susceptible to that medicine. The problem is made worse when patients stop their antibiotics course too early – often as soon as they feel better – as the remaining microorganisms then have a better chance of escaping.

“Every time antibiotics are used in any setting, bacteria evolve by developing resistance and that process can happen with alarming speed. These drugs are a precious, limited resource—the more we use antibiotics today, the less likely we are to have effective antibiotics tomorrow, ” said Steve Solomon, Director of the CDC’s Office of Antimicrobial Resistance.

Another breeding ground for superbugs is livestock farms – the destination of up to 80 percent of all antibiotics - where animals are routinely prescribed drugs, mostly as a preventative measure and to make sure they grow as large as possible. The strains produced in those circumstances are then passed on to humans, creating additional danger.

Estimating the exact number of people who have been infected and died from a drug-resistant bacteria is by nature an imprecise activity.

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When antibiotics were first introduced in the

by 14millionyearsold

1940's, they solved the rpoblems of infectious disease like Staphylococcus and tuberculosis, today 95% of staph infections are resistant to penicillin and TB has returned. this is natural selection in motion, in response, drug companies came up with methicillin, and due to newer mutations, it is becoming useless.
the evolution of resistance has created an arms race between humans and microorganisms.
you asked for one example of a drug that cures, penicillin cures Streplococcus which causes "strep throat" this form of bacteria has failed to evolve the slightest resistance to penicilin along with a many others which you fail to educate yourself on

What you should know about antibiotics  — Nigerian Tribune
Besides the development of drug-resistant microorganisms, the abuse of antibiotics contributes to the increase in childhood obesity.