Cancer drugs in development // Drug Repurposing

Cancer drugs in development

Dr Steve RoyleCells use a tiny machine called the mitotic spindle to share genetic material equally between cells when they divide. But when this process goes wrong it can lead to cancer.

For many years we’ve been interested in how the spindle divides up genetic material accurately. When a cell divides it must make sure that each daughter cell receives just one copy of each chromosome, which carries DNA to the new cell. Defects in this process can lead to cells having the wrong amount of chromosomes, which can lead to cancer or birth defects.

Anti-cancer drugs have been developed which target the mitotic spindle and destroy dividing cells in tumours. But these drugs have significant side effects. In my lab, we’re trying to understand how the mitotic spindles work in order to develop drugs that are more targeted and have fewer side effects.

Colleagues and I at Warwick Medical School have shown in The Journal of Cell Biology that a team of three proteins – called the TACC3–ch-TOG–clathrin complex – work to hold the spindle’s microtubules together and stabilise the bundle through a system of “bridges”.

Drugs such as Taxol (Paclitaxel) have been used very effectively in chemotherapy because they poison microtubles and inhibit the mitotic spindle. This stops cancer cells from dividing and causes them to die.

However, the disadvantage is that microtubules are needed for many functions in non-cancerous cells. This means that existing treatments don’t discriminate between cancerous and normal cells. So the use of Taxol and others in its family, for example, cause side effects such as nerve damage.

If we could target the mitotic spindle proteins, rather than microtubules, we may be able to develop effective anti-cancer drugs with far fewer side effects.

We’ve found that in cancer cells, the amount of the protein complex is either too low or too high. This suggests that these proteins could be targeted for potential anti-cancer therapies in the future.

Our research group, together with Richard Bayliss‘ lab at the University of Leicester, have recently described how the proteins in the TACC3–ch-TOG–clathrin complex bind to one another. In turn this led us to understand how the complex binds to microtubules. By taking out the TACC3 protein, the clathrin loses its function and is no longer able to create some of the bridges that bind the microtubles.

It’s important as we can use this information to think of ways to break the complex apart or to prevent it binding microtubules. From this, we may be able to disrupt the function of the protein complex in dividing cells and inhibit the sharing of chromosomes during mitosis, causing the death of cancerous cells.

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Lying with Statistics

by butterflybaby

Think Critically when you read studies like that.
are they choosing a specific gender or age or race on the study of coffee/caffeine to cancer development?
was their sampling biased?
more often than not, people lie with statistics more than you know.
it is no secret that many of the drugs legal and illegal have been used for medical uses.
Cocaine is sometimes used as an analgesic in eye surgery for numbing and was used for toothaches, etc..
many opiates used for cough suppressants and pain relief
as for caffeine and cancer. well caffeine is an upper

Freak Chickens Lay Eggs Loaded with Drugs

by burping-diplomat

Genetically modified hens can produce drugs in the whites of their eggs, scientists reported today.
The technology "signifies an important advance in the use of farm animals for pharmaceutical production," the scientists said in a statement.
Traditional methods for producing therapeutic proteins such as antibodies used to treat cancer and arthritis are expensive. Farm animals could produce them faster and cheaper, the thinking goes.
Researchers led by Helen Sang of the Roslin BioCentre in Edinburgh, Scotland created transgenic hens by inserting the genes for desired pharmaceutical proteins into the hen’s gene for ovalbumin, a protein that makes up 54 percent of egg whites

He will force you to be Chrsitians, darlings!!

by TrollitaDelaforumz

Hagar recently assisted the Christian Medical Association in a "citizen's petition" which calls upon the FDA to revoke its approval of mifepristone in the name of women's health. Hager's desire to overturn mifepristone's approval on religious grounds rather than scientific merit would halt the development of mifepristone as a treatment for numerous medical conditions disproportionately affecting women, including breast cancer, uterine cancer, uterine fibroid tumors, psychotic depression, bipolar depression and Cushing's syndrome. Women rely on the FDA to ensure their access to safe and effective drugs for reproductive health care including products that prevent pregnancy

Lab animals & medical research for humans

by KnucklesTheDog

Medical research & drug development is done primarily with mice these days (or through other methods that don't involve the use of lab animals). Mice have a shorter lifespan making it easier to study disease progression in many test subjects over a short period of time. They take up a lot less space and cost far less money to acquire and maintain.
They also specifically breed lab mice with immunodeficiencies so they don't reject transplanted human cancer cells; and can even genetically engineer mice that are susceptible to specific human diseases. I'm not defending the practice or decrying it- just pointing out the impracticality of testing on shelter dogs

The Morning Ledger: Companies Look to Turn the Tables on Proxy Advisers  — Wall Street Journal
Astra cited the potential value of its cancer drugs in development as one of the reasons for rejecting the approach. Tesla's Musk plans to remain CEO into 2018.

Academic Press Genomics in Cancer Drug Discovery and Development, Volume 96 (Advances in Cancer Research)
Book (Academic Press)
Humana Press The Role of Microtubules in Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Oncology (Cancer Drug Discovery and Development)
Book (Humana Press)