Nursing Pharmacology // Drug Repurposing

Nursing Pharmacology

How to Pass Nursing
ANTIBIOTICS / ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS

Prototype: Gentamicin (Garamycin)Action: Acts by suppressing protein synthesis in bacterial cell; bactericidal.Use: serious gram-negative bacterial infections, eye infections.Adverse effect: toxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuromuscular blockade, and hypersensitivity photosensitivity with topical preparations
  1. Amikacin (Amikin)
  2. kanamycin (Kantrex) are given orally
  3. Neomycin (Niobiotic) to prepare the bowel for surgery
  4. Streptomycin
  5. Tobramycin
  6. Netilmicin
*Neomycin- given to persons in hepatic failure to reduce ammonia levels.Prototype: Penicillin G PotassiumAction: inhibits cells wall synthesis of microorganism; bactericidalUse: Systemic infections caused by gram (+) cocci; syphilis, prophylaxis for rheumatic fever and bacterial endocarditisAdverse Effect: Hypersensitivity, G.I upset, potassium poisoning, irritation at injection site.Nursing Implications: give oral form on an empty stomach with a full glass of water; IV solutions are stable at room temperature for 24 hrs. onlyProbenecid: may be given to increase blood levels of penicillin. 1. Penicillinase –resistant penicillins -used to treat infection caused by penicillinase producing organism.Examples: a.) Nafcillin sodiumb.) Cloxacillin-increased effectiveness against gram negative organism.b.) Amoxicillinc.) Bacampicillin3. Extended-spectrum penicillins-structurally similar to ampicillin but have an increased spectrum of activity against gram-negative bacteria.Examples: a.) Carbenicillin sodiumb.) Piperacillin4. Penicillin / beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations-prevents destruction of penicillin by enzymes and extend the penicillin’s spectrum of antimicrobial activity.Examples: Amoxicillin / potassium clavulanate (Augmentin) Ampicillin/ Sulbactam (Unasyn)C. CEPHALOSPORINS –divided into 4 generations based on their spectrums of activity.Prototype for first generation (ephalozorines- Cefazolin Sodium (Ancef)Action: Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis; bactericidal.Use: infection caused by gram-positive cocci; septicemia; serious intraabdominal infection.Adverse Effect: Phlebitis at IV site; diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, hypersensitivity, fungal overgrowth, discomfort at IM injection site, nephrotoxicity, hepatoxicity, bone marrow depression.1. Assess for hx of penicillin allergy as there is a cross allergy between cephalosporin and penicillin.2. Dose will be reduced with renal and liver impairment3. Probenecid therapy will increase blood levels of cephalosporin.a.) Cephalexin (keflex)
b.) Cephradine (Valosef)
Prototype for 2nd generation Cephalosporins –Cefoxitin Sodium (Mefoxin)
Use: infection caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria; septicemia, pelvic skin soft tissue infections, prophylaxis in abdominal or pelvic surgery; gonorrhea.
Adverse Effect: same as above
Nursing Implications: Lidocaine is used as diluent for IM injection and helps reduced pain of IM injection.
a.) Cefaclor (Ceclor)
b.) Cefuroxime sodium
Prototype for 3rd generation Cephalosporins –Cefotaxime (Claforan)
Use: Serious infections caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria
Nursing Implication: Don’t mix with aminoglycoside solutions; protect IV solution from light.
Prototype for 4th generation Cephalosporins –Cefepine (maxipene)
Use: UTI caused by E. coli or klebsiella pneumonia caused by streptococcus pneumoniae Pseudomonas acryinosa or enterobacter.
Nursing Implication: have vit. K available if hypoprothombinemia develops.
Action: Inhibits protein synthesis in bacterial cell, bacteriostatic.
Use: person allergic to penicillin, legionnaires Disease, mycoplasma pneumonia, intestinal dysenteric amebiasis, acne, staphylococcal and streptococcal infections.
Adverse Effect: G.I irritation, superintations, allergic reactions, hepatitis, reversible hearing loss.
-Take on empty stomach with a full glass of water.
-G.I symptoms are dose related
-IV must be diluted sufficiently and administered slowly to avoid venous irritation and thrombophlebitis.
1.) Erythromycin estolate (Ilosone)
2.) Azithromycin (Zithromax)
3.) Clarithromycin (Biaxin)
4.) Dirithromycin (Dynabac)
Prototype: Tetracycline hydrochloride (Acromycin V)
Action: broad-spectrum with bateriostatic action and, at higher doses, bactericidal action; inhibits bacterial wall synthesis, reduces free fatty acids from triglycerides thus reducing acne lesions
Use: Chlamydia, mycoplasma, rickettsia, acne vulgaris, gonorrhea, spirochetes
Adverse Effect: hypersensitivity, superinfection chelating to teeth and new bome, N/V, diarrhea, colitis, headache, dizziness, abdominal cramping, photosensitivity.
a.) Avoid use during pregnancy, in nursing women, and in children under age 8 as drug binds to calcium in teeth and new bone growth, which results in tooth discoloration of permanent teeth and retarded bone growth
a.) Take 1hr. before or 2 hrs. After meals and avoid taking with dairy products, antacids, vitamins and minerals.
b.) Avoid the sun while taking drug and for a few days after therapy is terminated
c.) Use meticulous hygiene to reduce super infections.
  1. Doxycycline (Vibramycin) –can be administered with food.
  2. Minocycline (Minocin) –can be taken with food. Dizziness and fatigue may occur.
  3. Demeclocycline (Declomycin) –administer on an empty stomach; foods high in calcium and iron interfere with absorption.

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5. Pharmacology—0 percent
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by shortbride

1. Engaged: July 2nd, 2002
2. Wedding date: Sept 2008 (I graduate in May 2008)
3. My job: Student-trying to get a Master's in nursing
4. FH's job: Firefighter
5. What FH is doing: Watching a "rescue me" marathon on FX. shocking!
6. What I should be doing: Pharmacology...or a researching paper
7. Celebrity that drives me nuts: Britney Spears...with all that money, can't she wear some damn shoes. ugh!
8. Celebrity I met: Natalie Portman-she's about as short as I am.
9. Hoping to accomplish this weekend, month , year: study-finish writing all these papers-survive 1/3rd of grad school
10

Here are the titles to my textbooks...

by sfscheermom

My med-surg book I'm using is Foundations & adult health nursing by Barbara Lauritsen-Christensen, ISBN # is 978-0-323-03934-5. For ob & peds we used Intro to maternity & pediatric nursing by Gloria Leifer. That ISBN # is 978-1416032755. We are supposed to be starting psych this semester. We're using Fudamentals of Mental Health nursing by Kathy Neeb. The ISBN # 978-0803614017. We are done with A&P. We used Structure and Function of the body by Thibodeau and Swisher for that class. For math we used Drug Calculations. I can't remember who that one was by. Our pharm book was basic pharmacology for nurses

Just looking out for ya ;)

by NoviceKnitter

Actually, most patients in isolation have their own stethoscope anyway, so you wouldn't even need to take yours in. As long as you remember to take yours off and leave it outside of the patient's room, I don't see why you can't have a cover on your stethoscope in other patients' rooms. It might be a good ice breaker or conversation starter for new patients too, who knows?
Hey, I think we're kinda in the same boat - I graduated from high school in 2003 and went straight to my state school to do prereqs and GEs. It took me 2 1/2 years to get all that done and I started the nursing program January 2006

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