Autoimmune diseases of the eye // Drug Repurposing

Autoimmune diseases of the eye

Abstract: In recent years considerable headway has been made on understanding the mechanisms underlying inflammatory diseases of the eye. This includes the role of the innate vs. adaptive arms of the immune systems in disease, the concept that distinct immune pathways can drive end-organ pathology, and the role as well as limitations of immune privilege in controlling the innate and adaptive effector responses that lead to eye pathology and loss of vision. These insights have largely been derived from basic studies in established and in newly developed animal models of uveitis. The increased understanding of disease mechanisms has the potential to guide development of rational therapies for human uveitis. Many novel biologics currently in use or being evaluated have been developed, or validated, in animal models of autoimmune and inflammatory disease, including experimental uveitis. Paradoxically, and fueled in part by dwindling research budgets, a campaign has been gathering momentum against use of animal models in preclinical research, as being poorly representative of responses in humans. Given the extensive genetic similarity between humans and laboratory rodents as revealed by the Human, Mouse and Rat Genome Projects, and the finding that almost all known disease-associated genes have orthologs in mice and rats, perhaps the problem is our still-insufficient understanding of mechanisms and inadequate knowledge of species differences, resulting in poor choice of models, rather than in an inherent unsuitability of animal models to represent human disease.


Non-infectious uveitis is an inflammatory condition within the eye that has no known infection etiology. Uveitis is a heterogeneous disease: it can be a standalone condition affecting the eye only, or can be part of a more generalized systemic syndrome (see Table 1 for examples). Patients exhibit secondary responses to retinal antigens that are involved in vision and are unique to the eye, and have strong associations with HLA. The latter are associated with induction of immune responses because they present antigens to T cells. These findings have led to the notion that uveitis is autoimmune in nature, with particular HLA molecules presenting autologous retinal antigens that are normally sequestered within the eye, to the immune system. Additional support for this notion came from clinical findings that uveitis tends to respond clinically to T cell targeting agents (such as CsA, rapamycin, IL-2R, Campath — see Table 2) and that elevated inflammatory T cell responses of the Th1 and Th17 phenotypes often accompany the disease (Chi et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2012a). For ethical and logistic reasons, etiological agents and mechanistic associations are hard to study in humans. Nevertheless, animal models of uveitis induced by immunization with retinal antigens, or by transfer of retina-specific T cells (either Th1 or Th17) specific to these antigens, whose pathology is in many ways reminiscent of the human disease, would seem to support the notion that retina-specific T lymphocytes may be involved in driving disease pathology in humans.

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by kissafrogcreations

I have several autoimmune diseases and I'm trying to get off Prednisone after being on it for ten years. Right now I am in a studio apartment that a friend set up for me but it's way down in Belmont up on a hill and there's no public transportation to the apartment after 5 PM. It's a real problem and I'm a writer so I can't always dictate when a client will want to meet with me. I can't pay alot of rent but I am well enough to help out someone else who is disabled. In fact, it would be a great situation for me to live with another disabled person because we could sort of keep an eye out for one another and I would be there almost all the time since I work from home

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by Shallotslady

Of frequency.
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by C.A. Sharp
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You can already DNA test for

by bonniethecollie

Many diseases. My own dogs either have been or will soon be tested for CEA (collie eye anomaly), PRA (progressive retinal atrophy), cyclic neutropenia (an autoimmune disease), and ivermectin sensitivity. Including OFA heart, thyroid, and hips, it amounted to about $800 per dog.
It's a tool that people choose to use or not. One of the great benefits is that "possible carriers" can be determined without test breeding (breeding to an affected dog to see if any of the puppies are affected).
There are no "perfect" dogs and people who reject dogs based on carrier status are misinformed

Not really. Genetic variability

by vicalzip

I.e., "hybrid vigor" doesn't really work in dogs because all purebreds are pretty homozygous and all share a number of different genetic diseases.
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.. the success ImmuPharma has already demonstrated with our patented peptide for Lupuzor,” said the company's chief scientific officer Dr Robert Zimmer. Lupuzor, for the autoimmune disease lupus, is a phase III-ready drug with blockbuster potential.

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Book (Your Health Press)
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Eye autoimmune diseases(Chinese Edition)
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