Autoimmune diseases impact factor // Drug Repurposing

Autoimmune diseases impact factor

Suzuki, T. (2013). Regulation of intestinal epithelial permeability by tight junctions. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, 70(4), 631–59. doi:10.1007/s00018-012-1070-xIf you haven’t already, be sure to check out Part 1.

The Intestinal Barrier: Where the Rubber Meets the Road

The mucosal immune system is the largest interface between our internal and external environments – the small intestine alone has an approximate surface area of 400 m2 – and is responsible for the elimination of a diversity of pathogens while maintaining tolerance to large populations of resident bacteria and the continuous flow of food-derived particles that pass through the digestive system every day. While this system includes everything from the epithelia of the urogenital tract, the respiratory tract, and the mammary glands to that that of the digestive tract, the mucosal immune system of the intestines is of primary importance when considering the impact of nutrition on immunity.

The intestinal mucosa is home to a wide variety of leukocytes, including specialized populations of lymphocytes that are site-specific. Together, these cells coordinate a fine balance between tolerance and reactivity, and in healthy mucosa inflammation is largely absent, demonstrating the effectiveness of local homeostatic control given the large numbers and volume of potential pathogens passing through the intestines every day, and the presence of 1012 bacterial cells/mL in the colon contents.

Celiac disease, barrier disruption, and inflammation

Disruption of this sensitive intestinal barrier is associated with a number of diseases, most notable Celiac disease (CD) and the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis). CD is an increasingly prevalent autoimmune/allergic disease that is triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by the ingestion of the gliadin fraction of gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, oats, and barely, and similar proteins found in other cereal grains. The prevalence of CD in the US was recently established as 1 in 133, with a higher incidence in close relatives of CD patients.

CD shares comorbidity with a number of other autoimmune diseases, most notably type 1 diabetes (an autoimmune disease of the pancreas), and provides an example of the potential impact of a bioactive food protein on the homeostasis of the intestinal mucosa. In CD, digestion of gliadin into peptide fragments allows them to bind to receptors on intestinal epithelial cells, beginning an intracellular signaling cascade that loosens the structural connections between epithelial cells, called tight junctions (TJs). TJs normally function to prevent the passage of the luminal contents into the connective tissue lying underneath the epithelium, and the disruption of TJ integrity can allow them access to leukocytes that are normally isolated from the luminal contents

Abadie, V., Sollid, L. M., Barreiro, L. B., & Jabri, B. (2011). Integration of genetic and immunological insights into a model of celiac disease pathogenesis. Annual review of immunology, 29, 493–525. doi:10.1146/annurev-immunol-040210-092915 Maslowski, K. M., & Mackay, C. R. (2011). Diet, gut microbiota and immune responses. Nature immunology, 12(1), 5–9. doi:10.1038/ni0111-5

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Re: This is vague...

by imscrewed

This is the textbook definition:
Is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body. PNI has an interdisciplinary approach, interlacing disciplines as psychology, neuroscience, immunology, physiology, pharmacology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, infectious diseases, endocrinology, rheumatology and others.
The main interest of PNI is the interaction between the nervous and immune systems, and the relation between mind processes and health. PNI studies, among other things, the physiological functioning of the neuroimmune system in health and disease; disorders of the neuroimmune system (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency), the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the neuroimmune system in vitro, in situ, …

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